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Waste Management Strategy

The city of Oslo has set an overall target to reduce its CO2 emissions in 50% by 2030 and to become carbon neutral by 2050 compared to 1990. One of the measures needed to achieve this ambitious target is an integrated waste management system, which Oslo launched in 2006 with its Waste Management Strategy (WMS), aiming to establish a “recycle and reuse” society. The WMS builds on national strategies and promotes the waste management hierarchy. Incineration and landfill are seen as the least desirable forms of waste management and represent the last resort within Oslo’s strategy. As such, a large part of the WMS concentrates on the behavioural habits of citizens to make them carry out waste reduction, reuse and recycling. In 2012, Oslo implemented the circular waste management system which includes recycling, producing biogas and bio fertilizer from bio waste, and energy recovery for district heating and electricity production. The core of the waste management system is an extensive system of source separation where the citizens work together with high-tech machinery to ensure high recycling rates. All waste becomes raw material either in the production of new products such as new plastic products, bio methane, bio fertilizer or as heat and electrical power. Food waste, garden waste and sewage become biogas, soil-products and bio-fertilisers. A biogas plant processes food waste from households and industrial companies into green fuel. Climate neutral biogas is also produced from sewage sludge and upgraded for use as transport fuel at another facility. Together the two plants produced 3 million Nm3 biogas in 2015. The Klemetsrud Plant is now in the last phase of a national programme to put in place a full CCS (carbon capture and storage) value chain in Norway. Non-recyclable waste and waste that is not properly recycled are converted into energy in the Klemetsrud Plant. The Klemetsrud plant is one of Eastern Norway’s largest land-based industrial companies, and a major point source for CO2 emissions, with annual emissions exceeding 300.000 tons of fossil CO2. CCS of these emissions will help cut 12% of Oslo’s fossil CO2 emissions. Approx. 60% of the captured CO2 has its origin from biological sources making CCS from waste incineration “carbon negative”.