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Economic frameworks


Economic frameworks foster and drive market innovation. With, for instance, tradable permits, the polluter-pays-principle can be set in place[1]; extended producer responsibility (ERP) mandates life-cycle thinking in manufacturing and import sectors[2]; or public-private-partnerships (PPPs) strengthen important infrastructure for the circular economy[3].

[1] OECD. 2011. Tools For Delivering on Green Growth. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Available online via

[2] OECD. 1998. Extended and Shared Producer Responsibility. OECD. Available online via:

[3] Shen, L.; Tam, V.W.Y.; Gan, L.; Ye, K. & Zhao, Z. 2016. Improving Sustainability Performance for Public-Private Partnership (PPP) Projects. Sustainability. Vol.8(3) pp.289  

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