Labelling schemes (commonly referred to as eco-labels) impart clear information regarding the overall life-cycle performance of materials and products, enabling consumers to make more informed purchasing decisions. Taking a life-cycle perspective, the instrument delineates criteria based on environmental impacts, rewarding those products and services that fulfil defined criteria. Thus, eco-labels encourage manufacturers and/or service providers to improve the environmental performance of their goods and services to meet the criteria established in the scheme. Labelling schemes are often voluntary and seek to harness market forces to improve the overall environmental performance of products and services.
 Tojo, N.; Neubauer, A. & Bräuer, I. 2008. Waste management policies and policy instruments in Europe. International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economies (IIIEE) Reports. Available online via: https://www.ecologic.eu/sites/files/project/2015/documents/holiwastd1-1_iiiee_report_2__0.pdf
 Jordan, A,; Wurzel, R.K.W. & Zito, A. 2005. The Rise of ‘New’ Policy Instruments in Comparative Perspective: Has Governance Eclipsed Government? Political Studies. Vol.53 pp.477-496.