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Environmental assessment & permitting

Environmental assessment and permitting serves to evaluate and ensure compliance of activities within established environmental standards. [1] Moreover, environmental assessments are often a necessary precondition to obtaining environmental permits which, themselves, seek to control potentially environmentally damaging activities through mandating certain minimum requirements that must be fulfilled.[2] Such assessment and permitting schemes often form an integral component of land use planning processes.[3] There exist two prevailing approaches to environmental assessment: Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), which evaluates impacts associated with government policies, plans and programmes and Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), which evaluates the impacts of particular projects and/or activities.


[1] OECD. N.d. Strategic Environmental Assessment and Environmental Impact Assessment. OECD. Available online via:

[2] Silva, E. & Acheampong, R. 2015, Developing an Inventory and Typology of Land-Use Planning Systems and Policy Instruments in OECD Countries. OECD Environment Working Papers, No. 94, OECD Publishing, Paris.

[3] World Bank. N.d. Environmental Licensing. Guidance Notes on Tools for Pollution Management. The World Bank Group. Available online via:

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