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Monitoring & enforcement

Performance monitoring strategies supports the harmonised and comprehensive collection of data that enables the identification of opportunities for priority areas, the strengthening of the evidence-base of such opportunities to evaluate progress and identify future targets and directions, as well as help to ensure compliance with existing regulatory instruments where compliance tends to be low. [1], [2] Furthermore, mandatory and standardised monitoring and reporting improves data utility. [3] Monitoring can be conducted through a self-assessment or a dedicated auditing body. [4]


[1] European Commission. 2014. Scoping study to identify potential circular economy actions, priority sectors, materials flows and value chains. European Commission. Available online via:

[2] C40 Cities. 2016. Good Practice Guide: Municipal Building Efficiency. C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group. Available online via:

[3] EPRS. 2017. Towards a circular economy - Waste management in the EU. European Parliamentary Research Service. Available online via

[4] EC-IILS. 2011. Policy options and instruments for a green economy. European Commission & International Institute for Labour Studies. Joint Discussion Paper Series No. 12. Available online via:

Relevant case studies and articles